GSPR

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2017 GSPR 대표이미지

2017 GSPR

등록일 : 2017-08-29

  • - Improving the Effectiveness of Institutions for Gender Mainstreaming in Enhancing Gender Equality
  • - A Study on Legal System Improvements for the Comprehensive Protection and Support of Victims of Violence Against Women
  • - Status of Online Sexism and Measures for Improvement
  • - Formal and Informal Networks’ Characteristics and their Effect in Terms of Gender
  • - Policies to Support School-Age Children in Vulnerable Families
  • - Gender Equality-Looking Back at Progress Since Beijing and Looking Forward to the SDGs
  • - Gender in the French Constitution: the Case of Parite
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GSPR

- Improving the Effectiveness of Institutions for Gender Mainstreaming in Enhancing Gender Equality

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This study aims to seek ways to enhance the effectiveness of gender impact analysis
and assessment (GIAA) and gender budgeting (GB) - the primary tools of gender
mainstreaming (GM) - in order to promote gender equality. GM is the strategy of
incorporating a gender-sensitive perspective into general policies and shifting genderneutral
policies towards gender equality. However, as gender-unequal practices and
perceptions have a well-established history, it has been difficult to draw a social
consensus as to what gender inequality is and which policies would actually represent
gender equality. In the Republic of Korea, the Basic Plans for Women’s Policy have
been operated every five years as state-led initiatives to challenge the unequal practices,
perceptions and attitudes faced by women. Further policies based upon the first Basic Plan
for Gender Equal Policy are also in operation. Furthermore, instruments indicating the
degree of women’s participation in eight areas - including the economy, health, welfare,
and the family - have been designed in order to measure levels of gender inequality.
As key tools for GM, GIAA and GB target the acheivement of gender equality in
national policies. In addition, the Basic Plan for Gender Equal Policy and the National
Gender Equality Index have recently been established as tools for resolving gender
inequalities through national policy action. All four of these tools aim to steer national
policies operating across a wide range of areas towards gender equality, and all four can
be regarded as institutions of GM.
This study’s first priority is to examine the ways in which an interlinkage can be
established between the National Gender Equality Index, which uses gender statistics
to measure disparities between men and women in different areas of life, and the Basic
Plan for Gender Equality Policy, which lists the goals, vision, and tasks for the state in
pursuing a gender-equal society. In addition, emphasis is placed on state accountability,
with polices for major public bodies suggested that include gender equality goals based on
GM institutions but subject to pilot analysis. This study will contribute to enhancing the
effectiveness of GM institutions in the medium and long term.

- A Study on Legal System Improvements for the Comprehensive Protection and Support of Victims of Violence Against Women

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The purpose of this study is to suggest a framework act (bill) on the prevention of violence
against women based on an examination of relevant laws, legislative examples from
other nations, and expert opinions, with a view to converting the current legal system in
which the relevant laws on violence against women: the acts on the protection of victims
of domestic violence, the protection of victims of sexual violence, and the protection of
victims of sexual trafficking, are operated independently into a system with a framework
act related to violence against women.
The contents of the study include the examination of the concept of violence against
women, including the South Korean laws and policies relevant to protection and
support of female victims of violence, and an analysis of legislative examples from the
United Kingdom and the US. Based on the results of the study, measures on legislative
adjustment were suggested through interviews with experts and a Delphi survey.
The research methods employed include the review of related literature, an examination
of legislative examples from foreign nations, a conference of experts, and a Delphi survey.
Basic aims for legislative adjustment were set as follows: establishing a rational complementation among the policies concerning the protection and support of female
victims of violence, which has become necessary due to a legislative shift from a policy
for women to a policy pursuing gender equality, resolving disagreements between
legislation and policies as they are enforced, integrating the laws and regulations within
individual acts providing similar services, and introducing new institutions required in
order to protect and support female victims of violence. Finally, a framework act (bill) on
the prevention of violence against women reflecting the above-mentioned contents was
suggested.

Key Words: domestic violence, sexual violence, sex trafficking, prevention and protection
of violence against women, act related to violence against women

- Status of Online Sexism and Measures for Improvement

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Online sexism is currently among the negative aspects of online culture. Online culture
remains sexist despite the rosy expectations of the early stages of the digital development
that digital technology would resolve the physical, economic, and technological
inequalities between genders. Even with women’s increased online participation, a
considerable portion of online content contains sexist expressions of derogation of and
hatred for women. For example, comments on news articles and posts on web forums
are found to use extremely vulgar expressions revealing radically sexist ideology
that can upset readers’s emotional stability. Even news articles, which are considered
public discourse, feature sexist remarks and images and can be accompanied by sexist
advertisements, some bordering on pornographic images.
Many women feel uncomfortable with and even insulted by sexist content and suffer
damage to their self-esteem when personally attacked by aggressive remarks addressed to
them. This type of experience can prevent women from freely expressing their opinions
or communicating online, and can even lead them to withdraw from online activities.
The detrimental effects of sexist online content are not limited to women. It causes young
people who frequently encounter sexist content in their daily online activities to form
an inappropriate gender consciousness. Since the sexist content degrades and objectifies women based on gender stereotypes, young males can come to consider the essence of
masculinity and gender relationships to be one of domination and violence. This distorted
understanding of reality leads to not only gender conflict, but also to the imprisonment of
men in inappropriate norms of masculinity.
Recently, the phenomenon of online misogyny, which started from certain maledominated
communities, has raised the issue of developing a systematic understanding of
online sexism. Even though sexism in the media has been an important subject of media
studies since the 1980s, online sexism has not been methodically monitored or discussed
due to the difficulty of access to the broad online territory. Research into online content
requires a qualitatively different approach from the previous methods utilized to analyze
traditional media, such as broadcasting and newspapers. To monitor online content,
we need to develop a tool for online monitoring which takes into consideration the
multiplicity of platforms, un-fixity of content, and interactivity between content and users.
This research is designed to examine the status of online sexism by monitoring a diverse
range of online environments, with a particular focus on the targets and types of online
sexism and the related gender stereotypes. Online sexism is a recent development within
the overall phenomenon of gender discrimination. This paper examines how it differs
from previous forms of gender discrimination and how it can be contextualized. It also
attempts to develop a monitoring tool that can be applied by civic groups as they conduct
their own monitoring of sexism on the Internet.

- Formal and Informal Networks’ Characteristics and their Effect in Terms of Gender

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The purpose of this study is to identify formal and informal networks among male and
female employees in different organizations in order to examine their characteristics
and related gender differences. Moreover, this study aims to analyze the impact of these
networks on both the career development of female workers and on organizational
outcomes. For theses purposes, a review of previous research, an egocentric social
network analysis via an online survey, and a whole-network analysis of three enterprises,
including interviews with managers and employees, were conducted. Key findings are as
follows: Both male and female workers showed sex homophily, which is characterized
by networking with people of the same gender. Networks were significantly associated
with career satisfaction and career outlook among both male and female workers, but only
associated with position among female workers. Informal networks showed higher density
than did formal networks, and network connection was highly related with gender and
department. In addition, gender proportion was related to network composition, which is
associated with organizational outcome. Based on these findings, improving awareness
of networking at the individual level, providing networking opportunities and shifting the
manner of thinking about networks as well as diagnosing organization at the corporate
level, establishing mentoring and network programs and supporting women’s councils,
promoting online network activities at the governmental level, and the reation of social
and cultural environments that promote networking are all suggested.

Key Words: Formal and informal networks, gender differences, network characteristics,
network analysis, organizational outcomes

- Policies to Support School-Age Children in Vulnerable Families

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The family is the basic social unit, and it functionally supports and protects its members.
Its core function is deemed to be providing care for children. Moreover, it is closely
associated with social inequality since it reflects and reproduces such inequality. Family
background, the lifestyles of family members, material resources, and cultural and social
capital all have significant effects on children’s lives, options, and opportunities. In
particular, economic polarization can make it difficult to overcome inequality stemming
from family factors, so the family environment can be considered a key element that
impacts inequality of opportunities.
Research (Jang Sang-su, 2000; Bang Ha-nam & Kim Ki-hyeon, 2002; Koo In-hoe,
2003; Park Chang-nam et al., 2005; Kim Gwang-hyeok, 2008; Yeo Yoo-jin et al., 2007;
Kim Yang-boon et al., 2014a; Kim Yang-boon et al., 2014b; Eom Moon-young et al.,
2014) examining the relations between family background and academic achievement has
shown that social policy intervention is required to narrow the academic gaps attributed
to a lack of familial economic resources. However, some studies (Kim Tae-ill, 2005; Lim
Cheon-soon et al., 2004) have argued that private education requiring economic resources
actually has negative effects on academic achievement. Others (Lee Joo-ri, 2010) have
pointed out that it is human resource-related factors, such as parental support and parentchild
relationships, rather than economic resource-related elements that affect academic
achievement. As a result, it is insufficient to focus simply on a lack of familial economic
resources.
Not only a family’s scarcity of financial resources, which is indeed a major factor, but
also human resources (parents) should be included in the family background associated
with children’s academic achievement. Therefore, vulnerable families as used herein
refers to those families that lack any of the following three elements: economic resources,
human capital, and social capital. Childcare-related polices for supporting vulnerable
families suffering from a shortfall in family resources need to be carried out at a national
level as key investments in future generations.
Policies to support school-age children in vulnerable families need to be based
on an analysis of the effects of human and social capital on academic achievement,
including economic resources, parent-child relationships, and family capabilities. Family
factors, especially income gaps, are likely to lead to differences in children’s academic
achievement, future occupation, and social status, resulting in an intergenerational
transmission of poverty. Moreover, it is also necessary to consider socio-environmental
changes, such as increasing economic polarization, the slowdown in intergenerational
upward mobility, and limitations in opportunities for individual achievement. Against this
backdrop, learning support policies for school-age children in vulnerable families should
be implemented for the purpose of relieving the restrictions on learning opportunities
attributable to family factors.
This paper is designed to identify the effects of family factors on academic achievement
and suggest ways to promote related policies and thus improve the effectiveness of
learning support policies for children in vulnerable families.
Supporting school-age children in vulnerable families in learning more effectively is
a policy measure to relieve the limitations on opportunities for academic achievement
stemming from family factors. Prior research has shown that measures to address
family factors affecting academic achievement must be crafted in order to enhance
the effectiveness of learning support policies. These results need to be reviewed and
examined.
To this end, the longitudinal effects of poverty on children’s academic achievement,
as well as the related paths, were analyzed in order to verify the mediating effects of
parenting style on children’s academic achievement. Next, the path through which
family factors impact children’s academic achievement were identified, based on which
we attempted to devise measures to improve and modify policies to help children in
vulnerable families learn more effectively.

- Gender Equality-Looking Back at Progress Since Beijing and Looking Forward to the SDGs

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This manuscript is from the 7th Asia-Pacific Forum on Development and Gender, “Gender in International Development Agenda”: With a Special Focus on Beijing+20 and the SDGs in China, Japan and Korea held on December 14th, 2015.

- Gender in the French Constitution: the Case of Parite

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This presentation will have the following outline. I will first present a brief history of
the French republican tradition, leading to the adoption of the current Constitution which
dates back to 1958. I will then review a 1982 ruling of the Constitutional Council which
decided that quotas for women in local elections were unconstitutional. As a consequence, a political campaign emerged to enshrine the principle of parite in the Constitution. This
led to a constitutional revision in 1999, and a second one in 2008. These constitutional
revisions were implemented into laws promoting equal access for women in politics,
but also in professional and social positions. I will conclude with a brief overview of the
current French situation.
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